Called by the ancient Romans, "Anphitheatrum Flavlum" (Flavian Amphitheater), the Colosseum is the most famous and impressive monument of Ancient Rome, as well as the largest amphitheater in the world.
The name Colosseum derives from the enormous bronze statue of Nero which was erected nearby and which was known, given its size, as the Colossus of Nero. The construction of the amphitheater was started by Vespasiano but completed by Tito in 80 AD. and open to the public with a solemn inauguration that lasted a hundred days, of which some descriptions remain in the ancient chronicles. The Colosseum was built with the specific purpose of giving Rome a place worthy of the fame of its gladiatorial games that were previously performed in the temporary wooden building built by Nero in Campo Marzio (after the old Tito Stanito Tauro amphitheater went destroyed in the famous fire of 64 AD). Previously the games were held either in the Roman Forum or in the Forum Boario, which were equipped for these occasions with mobile structures.

In 1990, the Colosseum, along with the entire historical center of Rome, the extra-territorial areas of the Vatican in Italy and the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, was included in the list of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO, while in July 2007 was included among the New Seven Wonders of the World.

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