Florence was born from an Etruscan settlement then transformed into a Roman colony with the name of Florentia. During the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age it became one of the most vital centers of Europe, the place of representation of the city power, both for the municipal and republican institutions and for the Medicea Lordship, thanks to the flourishing commerce, to the rich textile production, to the vast commitment of the new religious orders born in the thirteenth century and to the lively cultural life. Since the fifteenth century Florence has exercised a predominant influence on the development of architecture and monumental arts, becoming the "cradle of the Italian Renaissance" thanks to the work of extraordinary artists such as Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio, and two geniuses of art such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.
The urban ensemble of Florence, which represents the strongest concentration of works of art known throughout the world, is in itself a unique artistic achievement, an absolute masterpiece, fruit of a continuous creation lasting six centuries that includes museums, churches , buildings and works of art of incommensurable value that have had an influence on the development of architecture and fine arts both in Italy and in Europe.
The setting of Florence, surrounded by the Tuscan hills and crossed by the river Arno, has remained unchanged over the centuries and the Florentines, aware of their architectural past, were able to preserve the original construction techniques through the use of traditional materials construction such as "pietra forte", "pietra serena", plasters and frescoes. The city has thus safeguarded its characteristics in terms of volumes and decorations and respected its medieval roots, such as the urban form with narrow alleys and the Renaissance identity of which Palazzo Pitti is an example.
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