Naples, founded by the Greeks in 470 BC, has always been one of the most important port cities of the Mediterranean and played a fundamental role in the transmission of Greek culture to Roman society. Already in the VI century BC some Greek colonists had founded on the islet of Megaride, where today stands Castel dell'Ovo, the city of Partenope, recalling the name of a siren that, according to legend, had committed suicide not enduring that Ulysses had managed to escape his song.
Over the centuries Naples underwent the rule of the Byzantine Empire, of the Normans, and with the Angioina dynasty (1265-1442) it expanded to the suburbs, becoming the symbol of the prestige and power of the family.
In the two centuries of Spanish rule, under the Aragonese, numerous interventions are made to rationalize the urban layout and to build grandiose buildings, including the beautiful Royal Palace, in addition to the construction of walls that make Naples a compact defensive structure strengthened by four castles.
After a brief Hapsburg period (1707-1734), Naples becomes the capital of an independent kingdom under the Bourbon dynasty and rivals other European capitals exerting significant influences in many fields of culture, mainly linked to art and architecture, and reaching various records in the field of scientific and technological innovation.
Also during the Bourbon government, the appearance of the city changes with an enlargement of the port and the rehabilitation of some villages that, with the subsequent nineteenth-century interventions, still characterize the urban fabric of Naples.
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