Pisa, an important seaport already in the period of ancient Rome, was one of the glorious Italian Maritime Republics and between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries imposed its domination in the western and central Mediterranean. The city, which overlooks a large loop of the Arno, is now distant from the sea but still preserves its urban structure with churches, palaces and medieval houses.
Piazza del Duomo, known as Campo dei Miracoli, houses four buildings masterpieces of medieval architecture: the Cathedral, the Baptistery, the Bell Tower and the Cemetery.
The Cathedral represents a new model of church, for the polychrome architecture and the use of the loggia, which is found in other Tuscan cities, such as Lucca and Pistoia, but also in the territories that were under the dominion of Pisa, such as Sardinia and Corsica. On the sides were inserted reuse materials from monuments of the Roman age to emphasize the greatness of Pisa as "other Rome".
The Baptistery is an imposing structure surrounded by columns, like the Cathedral, on columns and has a covering system consisting of a double dome, an internal truncated cone and an external one with a hemispherical cap, which gives the environment an acoustics exceptional that makes it a real 'musical instrument'.
The bell tower, with its seven huge bells and splendid architecture, soon afterwards was built and became what is still today known as the Leaning Tower.
Campo Santo, the last building built on the Piazza dei Miracoli, is one of the oldest medieval Christian architectures for the cult of the dead. During the fourteenth century the interior walls were animated by wonderful frescoes, focusing on the theme of Life and Death, which began a new phase of painting: among all we remember "The Triumph of Death", attributed to Buonamico Buffalmacco.
Campo dei Miracoli is also remembered for being the scene of the first experiments and the first intuitions of Galileo Galilei.
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